Week 9: 12 – 18 September 1936
The Nationalists march into San Sebastián
The Basques surrender San Sebastián as the Nationalists advance after their win at Irún two weeks ago. After the death and destruction of Irún, the people let the Nationalists come in without a single shot fired, but anarchists who are running want to burn the city, as in Irún. The Basques turn on one another to ensure the city isn’t destroyed, and the anarchists are killed. An estimated 30,000 (of a total of 80,000) people flee San Sebastián west towards Bilbao, the Basque Country’s biggest city. The evacuation was planned, but 600 people are murdered by the Nationalists after their victory parade, include the mayor and 17 priests who are loyal to the Basques. The Basque language is also banned.
The Republican government decide to send some of their national gold reserves to the Soviet Union. The gold will be used as security for future purchase of equipment and materials. While the Republicans need the supplies, they get less than half of the gold’s value in equipment.
The siege of Santuario de Nuestra Señora de la Cabeza begins in Andújar, near Jaén, in the south. Around 1,200 Nationalist civilians guarded by Guardia Civil members have been in the hilltop Nuestra Señora de la Cabeza church since August, as the town as been held by the Republicans. The Republicans now begin the battle to take the church and capture or kill the Nationalist supporters on the hill. The Nationalist leader wants to surrender, but is overthrown for another commander, who refuses to surrender, starting the siege. Luckily (for the Nationalists) they are dropped supplies from the air so they can hold out on the hilltop, for what is the first day in an eight month battle.
The Nuestra Señora de la Cabeza before the bombings
Pope Pius XI speaks out against the the Republican Government for their actions, and its ‘satanic hate against God’ (nicely forgetting all the harm the church has done to the people). Despite the war being almost two months old, this outrage only comes after the murder of Josep Samsó of the Santa María de Mataró basilica in Barcelona. After being imprisoned, he was then taken and executed, a fate given to countless priests.
The Nationalists take the town of Ronda in the south. Ronda had been under the control of Republicans since the war’s outbreak, and many churches destroyed and priests killed. General Verela takes the town and starts the executions. Many flee to Malaga nearby, still under Republican control, and some flee into nearby hills. Rumours of the fleeing Republicans living as bandits in the hills persist for another 15 years.
The Ronda bridge over the El Tajo gorge. Both sides of the war pushed their prisoners from the edge, and the prison cell in the bridge was used for torture
Continuing on from last week’s failed negotiations in Toledo (see here if you missed it)…
For the past month, Republicans have been digging two tunnels, mining to get under the southwest tower of Toledo’s famous Alcázar, which has 1,000 Nationalists inside, refusing to surrender. The mines are done, and Prime Minister Francisco Largo Caballero detonates an early morning bomb, which destroys the tower completely. As those inside cope with the surprise attack, the Republicans launch a four-pronged attack of the Alcázar in tanks and armoured cars. The Republicans still do not get inside the Alcázar, and continue their attack for another night and day with aerial bombing. The Alcázar is now heavily damaged and the two-month siege will soon come to an end.
Timeline of the Alcazar destruction
This is not a detailed analysis, just a highlight (lowlight?) of the week’s events. Feel free to suggest an addition/clarification/correction below. All photos are linked to source for credit