Almost two and a half years since the start of the war, the Republican-controlled area of Spain has dwindled. The battle of the Ebro through the second half of 1938 has destroyed the Republicans, who have no hope of recovery, with low numbers of trained men still alive, no weapons, and no aid in sight. With the withdrawal of all International Brigades in October, the Republicans are left isolated. The Nationalists continue to receive weapons, aircraft and ammunition from Hitler. The Munich Agreement (the changes to the Non-Intervention Committee agreement of stopping Germany and Italy from aiding Franco) has not been enforced by any European country, so the fascists are free to finishing destroying Spain.
The Nationalists decide to keep up momentum after taking Aragon, and plan their final offensive, to take Catalonia and its capital of Barcelona. The Army of the North, led by General Dávila, is 340,000 strong, spread out along the Catalonia border from the Pyrenees to the Mediterranean. The Segre River is controlled General Grande’s Army of Urgel, with General Valiño’s Army of Maestrazgo and Moscardo’s Aragon Army as back-up. The German Condor Legion provide air cover with 500 planes, on top of support from the Italian Cuerpo Legionario (four divisions of 55,000 men) and General Solchaga’s Army Corps from Navarra, plus General Yagüe’s Moroccan Corps fresh from the slaughter of the Ebro. Between these groups, they bring 1,400 cannons and 300 tanks.
The Republicans are seriously overwhelmed by this offensive. General Juan Hernandez Servia has his Oriental region Army Corps, joined by Colonel Perea’s East Army and Colonel Modesto’s Ebro Army. These groups combined make 300,000 men, but they have only 17,000 rifles between them. They combine their weapons and only come up with 250 cannons and 40 tanks (most too damaged to use). The Soviets have promised a shipment of weapons to aid Spain, promising 250 planes, 250 tanks and 650 cannons, but they cannot reach France before mid-January. On top of this problem, the borders cannot allow most of it into Spain.
Another major issue facing Catalonia is lack of food. With no international aid, rations per day for each person is only 100 grams of lentils. Both troops and civilians just want the war over, no matter what happens, even though for many, the end will be death. The problem is far from isolated to Catalonia, as all areas are suffering from lack of food, particularly Madrid, still surrounded by the rebels, and haven’t received fresh food from Valencia since late 1937.
The initial attack planned for December 10 has been changed to December 23, when the Italian and Navarre troops cross the Mequinenza river, through Republican frontlines and advance 16 kilometres near Lleida. They are only stopped on December 25 when they meet General Lister’s V and XV Republican Corps. At the same time, General Grande and General Valiño’s troops advance on Cervera and Artesa, but are stopped by the Republican 26th division. General Yague’s Moroccan troops are still at the Ebro due to winter flooding.
The first week of battle is held within the first 50 kilometres from the Catalonia border into the province, Cervera being 47 kilometres from the initial frontlines. Within the first week, the Republicans lose 40 planes in the fighting, the death toll on both sides not calculated as the battles are spread out along the province.
This is not a detailed analysis, just a highlight (lowlight?) of the month’s events. Things get lost in translation – Feel free to suggest an addition/clarification/correction below. The more the world remembers, the better. All photos and captions are auto-linked to source for credit, and to provide further information.