Week 17: 7 – 14 November 1936
(see Week 16: 1 -7 November 1936 for the Madrid lead-up and maps)
The attack on Madrid begins. All major bridges are attacked by Nationalist troops, most taken easily on the first day of fighting. General Varela attacks from the north, and troops pour into the Casa de Campo and through Ciudad Universitaria. Nationalist troops fight Republican militia in man-to-man combat, and killing occurs one building at a time as Nationalists swarm the city. The death count rockets on both sides. Despite their soldiers’ training and weapons, Colonel Yague sees over 300 of his Legionnaires Moroccan troops killed on day one. Franco expects the Nationalists will have won within a day, unaware the International Brigade troops are one day from arriving from east, along with the Durruti Column anarchists from Barcelona, in time to back up huge number of Spanish militia and hold back the conquering of Madrid.
The start of the massacres in Paracuellos del Jarama, a small area in the north of Madrid. Political prisoners, most soldiers and priests arrested at the outbreak of war, are taken out of the city to be executed. Between November 7 until December 4, the 5,000 prisoners are moved, as the Republicans don’t want hostile Nationalist prisoners inside the city. Some are moved away from the front, but Paracuellos del Jarama is the site of multiple executions. Over the first few days, 1,000 prisoners, all Nationalist sympathisers, will be shot. The death toll will be unknown; many say 2,000-3,000, some up to 12,000.
The major launch on Madrid begins. General Mola attacks with 20,000 soldiers, mostly the Moroccan troops. The Condor Legion from Germany launches air strikes on the city. German officer Wilhelm Von Thoma leads German tanks alongside light amour support from Italy.
The Republicans have more men, and send 12,000 to Carabanchel, but the larger force of 30,000 heads to Casa de Campo. The problem lies in the detail; the Republican men have had little or no training at all, and have only ten rounds per rifle. Only sheer numbers hold off the Nationalists. Small groups of Moroccan regulares soldiers manage to get over the Manzanares River to Model Prison, which is the set target for the onslaught. One of the Republican leaders, General Miaja, took his scared men forward himself to try to force the soldiers back. Radios all over Madrid repeatedly called the classic ‘¡No pasarán!’ (they shall not pass!) slogan, calling everyone to help in the fight against the siege.
By evening, the first International Brigade arrives, the XIth battalion, from Albacete in the east. There were small in numbers, but they provided morale and back-up for the fighting Madrileños. The men had not finished their basic training. They were greeted on Gran Via as a Soviet Union battalion, though they were a mix of German, Polish, Italian French and small numbers of other countries.
Telegrams are sent to the War Ministry in Madrid, congratulating Franco on his victory; no Nationalists are in Madrid, and neither side has won anything.
The Nationalists focus on taking the southern Carabanchel suburb. The Moroccan soldiers are trained in open-country fighting and not the urban battle they need to fight. Republicans, who work and live in the area, have the home ground advantage, and there are many Nationalist casualties as the Republicans again hold the enemy back.
The XI International brigade, 1,900 men, start their fighting in Casa de Campo alongside Republicans in the evening. Heavy fighting sees 2/3 of the Internationals killed, though the Nationalists do not advance into Madrid. Fighting will last for several days, with both sides suffering losses. The Nationalist no longer see Casa de Campo as a way into Madrid, though this is not just due to international fighting, but their presence is good for propaganda.
The San Fernando bridge, which flanks the left of the Nationalist-held area over the Manzanares River, is retaken by the Republicans.
Ciudad Universitaria in the city’s north is under Republican control, though the Nationalists are prepping the take the area. Around 150 Nationalists are killed on the front line around the north of the city, a total of 2,369 casualties since the start of the siege.
The Durruti Column, a group of 3,000 anarchists from Barcelona, arrive in Madrid, ready to help defend Casa de Campo. They had been marching to Zaragoza to recover the city from the Nationalists, but had no success and carried on to Madrid to help. They are led by famous anarchist Buenaventura Durruti.
Another 1,000 Nationalist prisoners are killed in the Paracuellos del Jarama reportedly by the Fifth Column, a communist led group of Spanish militiamen, who are well-organised and well-trained, unlike most in the area. The prisoners, all taken from the Model Prison in inner Madrid, are shot and bodies are dumped, in retaliation for the Nationalists attacking the city. The killings are one of the Republicans’ sides most vicious single-acts against civilians.
The arrival of the Durruti column causes some discontent as the placement of the men is up for debate, as the anarchists and Madrid-based militia try to work together. Regardless of any tensions within Madrid, the Nationalists are still held outside Madrid for another day.
The XII International Brigade arrives in Madrid and launches an attack on Cerro de los Ángeles hill, south of Madrid, only just taken by the Nationalists. This is to ensure the Nationalists cannot advance east of Madrid and claim the road to Valencia. The attack fails, but the road to Valencia is still secure. The brigade of Spanish, French, German and Austrian fighters are suffering from lack of training and supplies, and communication trouble, but the 1,500 strong brigade returns to the safety of Madrid, with minimal losses.
The battle continues in Carabanchel, and man-to-man fighting continues right in the military hospital, with the Republicans losing many men but still holding the area.
Fighting along the south and west of the city continues, with air strikes on the city combined with close combat fighting. The Nationalists are preparing to take Madrid via the northern Ciudad Universitaria area, as Casa de Campo and Carabanchel manage to hold safely. The International Brigades are basing themselves in the north now to hold the Nationalists back.
This is not a detailed analysis, just a highlight (lowlight?) of the week’s events. Feel free to suggest an addition/clarification/correction below. All photos are linked to source for credit